David and Goliath 1 Samuel 17 (KJV Version)
(color coded for clarity)…Goliath’s words, Jesse’s, Israelite’s, David’s, David’s brother’s, King Saul’s
1. Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim.
2. And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines.
3. And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them.
4. And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.
5. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.
6. And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders.
7. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him.
8. And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me.
9. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.
10. And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.
11. When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.
12. Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul.
13. And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.
14. And David was the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul.
15. But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.
16. And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.
17. And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp of thy brethren;
18. And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.
19. Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.
20. And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
21. For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array, army against army.
22. And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran into the army, and came and saluted his brethren.
23. And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the same words: and David heard them.
24. And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.
25. And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel.
26. And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the reproach from Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?
27. And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that killeth him.
28. And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.
29. And David said, What have I now done? Is there not a cause?
30. And he turned from him toward another, and spake after the same manner: and the people answered him again after the former manner.
31. And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul: and he sent for him.
32. And David said to Saul, Let no man's heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.
33And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.
34. And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:
35. And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.
36. Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.
37. David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.
38. And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail.
39. And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.
40. And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.
41. And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.
42. And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.
43. And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
44. And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.
45. Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.
46. This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.
47. And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give you into our hands.
48. And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came, and drew nigh to meet David, that David hastened, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.
49. And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
50. So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.
51. Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.
52. And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.
53. And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents.
54. And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.
55. And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.
56. And the king said, Enquire thou whose son the stripling is.
57. And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.
58. And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.
Questions and Some Possible Answers
1. There are many lessons in this but, what is the main lesson God is showing us in this particular event? God is with us in our battle(s) always, provided we are seeking Him through Jesus Christ.
2. What does Goliath (and the Philistines) represent? Sin, Temptation, Evil. What about possibly false teachers who teach of a god unknown to the Living God’s people. Must See Judges Chapters 1-2
3. It is interesting how Goliath says “if we win, you will be our servants” what kind of sin can we be enslaved by? Anger, hate, division, lack or forgiveness, alcohol, drugs, money, and other things of the “flesh”.
4. Name two people that David could represent in this event?. First is Jesus, our Savior , second is. Us as we too fight sin.
5. If David mainly represents Christ conquering sin, Who does David’s Father represent in verse 25? God the Father. Read on…!
6. So then, what does the nation of Israel represent? God’s chosen people, the “Church” that is us, provided we are following and walking in Christ , “fighting the good fight” Eph 6.
7. Was David alone in this fight? No, God was with him and David knew this from the beginning. See Matt 28: 18-20
8. What does David mean when he says in verse 46” …that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel… “?
That God would be glorified by in the victory through David and others would be strengthened by that victory to fight temptation being encouraged by the success of David/Jesus Christ!
9. How many times did satan attempt to undermine David’s faith and by whom did he do this? 3 times, through his oldest brother Eliab, Saul and Goliath. Note that two of them are his own people and one was Israel’s “leader”!!!
10. Who then gave words of encouragement to David in vs. 25? The common everyday people of Israel encouraged David by being the “messengers” of the “promise”.
11. What does David imply in verse 47? The real battle is the LORD’s… in the spiritual realm. The weapons of God are NOT the weapons of man. Another reason David could not use Saul’s armor.
12. What do we have to “throw” at evil? What could the “stone” then represent? When David threw the stone, it did not kill Goliath, it sank into his head. What is the significance of this? The Stone represents the Word of God. How? Jesus is called the “Rock”, the Light, the Word in which we can battle temptations and evil. God’s Word, when used in love and justly, disables satan and temptations of evil.
13. How did Jesus respond to satan when He was tempted in the wilderness in Matt 4? He answered everything with scripture in the form of laws or instructions from God. He also answered the “Leaders” or Pharisees with scripture too!
14. Do false teachers / prophets use God’s Word (a.k.a. Sword) against us? You can be sure of that! The Pharisees used the Word of God against the Jews by twisting it to serve them selves. Jesus set them all straight. Remember how the “stone” did not kill Goliath? Why is it that David kills him with his own sword? We might instantly think of the sword as the Word of God. But this does not seem to fit that Goliath has the WORD, or does it? So, is it possible that Goliath has the “Word of God“? MUST Read 1 Sam 21:1-9. This is where David needs a weapon…. See the significance? Clue: Satan quoted scripture to Jesus in Matt 4 also!
15. Finally, who Does Saul represent? Remember how and why Saul became the first king of Israel? Saul was appointed king because the people demanded this. They wanted to be like the other “nations”. This was very displeasing in God’s eyes. God told Israel that HE was their King! God gave them their demand and warned them to follow Him! The king did NOT seek God’s will. He was doing many things that angered or displeased God. So, when Goliath says to the Israelites “are you not servants of Saul?” He does NOT say they are servants of God! This is very significant.
Saul also represents Christian leaders today who are weak in faith or understanding of God’s True Gospel through Jesus Christ. This commonly undermines the faith of God’s people. People think they must “go it alone” or “o well, it’s the best I can do” They become complacent with sin in their lives. They tell us we cannot rule over sin or we are not equipped to fight.
16. How do we make sure we’re of the “House of David” and “set free” in vs. 25? By following Jesus Christ and all He taught, demonstrating it in our walk as a witness to others, loving as He loved us and keeping in repentance as we forgive others as He forgave us! See Matt 28: 18-20 Reading the Gospels shows us what is expected of us! When we error, there is the Blood of Christ for cleansing.
17. What exactly was the promise in verse 25? That who ever can kill this great giant would receive the King’s daughter and receive riches and make his Father’s house free. We’re the daughter! The church! Has Jesus set us free? If your indeed a new creature in Christ, then YES! Praise God!
18. All talk and No action! Another interesting point is how, in verse 20, how they are on the battle line shouting the battle cry. It’s interesting how we as Christians just talk of the battle and do not rush into battle with faith that God is with us. We should not be like them and just talk and shout, there should be action or works to go with your faith!
19. An individual “one on one” battle? Also, note how Goliath calls out for an individual to fight with him, there is no group effort on the part of God’s people to be joined in battle. Satan tries to divide us to conquer us. We must be united in Christ, the Head and with the brothers, the Body, to be as one!
20. Why in the world are the Philistines in the middle of Judah mustering an army? In verse 1, The Philistines are in Socoh, which belongs to Judah. Shochoh is smack dab in the middle of the nation of Israel. Why are they there mustering an army? The Philistines (who represent sin, ect.) had no business being in God’s Holy Land (or among His People). MUST Read-à Judges 2:1-6 Here we see that the Israelites disobeyed God by not purging the land of the Philistines. God tells them that they will be a thorn to them for times to come. Sin should not be a controlling force in God’s chosen people but “ruled over” (as God explains to Cain in Gen.4 when he was angry). Have you fully purged yourself of the things that cause and tempt you to sin? Or are you hanging on to these things?
21. What is the spiritual significance of David attempting to “try on” Saul’s armor and weapon? 21. They are not the type of weapons he is familiar with. David’s armor is God’s gift to us. See Eph 6.
22. Why does Saul not know David in vs. 55-58? How can this be when David is noted as being in king Saul’s service in 1 Sam.16? There is an interesting significance to this. Saul does not know David nor can David understand where Saul is coming from because they are not of the same faith or mindset. So Saul can never know David in his current state. Jesus tells the Pharisees that they “know not Him or the Father.” In the Gospels.
23. Do we know David? Do we know Jesus Christ and God’s will for us? Are we taking all the things Jesus taught fully to heart or are we “cherry picking” Jesus teachings? There is a neat passage in Ezekiel 34:23-24 23. And I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd. 24. And I, the Lord, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them. I am the Lord; I have spoken.
God wants us to Kill the Goliath’s (with the Word) just as David did literally and Jesus did in the spiritual realm and literal too! When David was victorious, the people were encouraged and they rushed in to battle keeping the Philistines powerless!
When we do, we are following in Christ’s footsteps just like He commanded and demonstrated to us in the gospels.
We see a clear view of the “spiritual” nature of this “battle” and the battle we are in today! Jesus has beaten sin and satan and He has been granted authority by God the Father over all. We just need to call on the Father for help in Jesus name in our battles against sin, deception and temptation. God is glorified by us asking for help.
A fascinating part in verses 28-30: David’s older brother Eliab (which in Hebrew means god of his father, see H446 and H410 in the concordance) Eliab accuses David of leaving the few sheep in the wilderness. When we know that the sheep where safely entrusted into a keeper’s hands. Eliab says, “…Why camest thou down…” twice to David. This is very important. We know in Hebrew writing style, that when something is repeated, it is for strong emphasis. (example: when Jesus says, “…verily, verily I say unto you…”) it is for strong emphasis. If David represents Christ, he did come down and won the battle against satan and sin so he might atone for us because He lived it as a man. Eliab accuses David of being evil just as the Pharisees accused Jesus of having a demon.
We could go on and on in this study of David and Goliath, We could even write a book on it!
O, wait! There is a book already written with the answers and explanations. You likely have this book within arms reach! You only need to study it while asking God to help you by the holy Spirit and reveal to you the richness and strength therein. If you ask the Father for bread will He give you a stone?
Seek and you will find, knock and it will be opened to you. When it is opened to you, glorify God by your walk in Christ Jesus! God bless you! Stay in the Word!